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5 Types of CCTV Technologies

A CCTV (closed-circuit television) system is a video surveillance system that is used to monitor a specific area or location using a network of cameras. The video footage captured by the cameras is transmitted to a central control room or a remote location, where it can be viewed and recorded. CCTV systems are often used for security purposes, to monitor traffic, and to help with the investigation of crimes. They can also be used to monitor employees or customers in a variety of settings, such as stores, banks, and factories. Some CCTV systems are also equipped with features such as motion detection, night vision, and automatic number plate recognition

1. Night Vision

Infrared night vision works by using a specialised camera that is sensitive to IR light, which is a type of light that is not visible to the human eye. When the camera is in night vision mode, it will emit a beam of IR light, which is invisible to people but can be picked up by the camera’s sensors. When the IR light reflects off objects in the camera’s field of view, it is picked up by the camera’s sensors and used to create a black and white image.

Some night vision cameras also use thermal imaging technology, which can detect heat signatures and create an image based on the temperature of objects in the camera’s field of view. This allows the camera to create an image even in total darkness, since objects emit heat even when there is no visible light present.

London at Night
2. Motion Detection

Passive infrared (PIR) motion detection works by using a sensor that is sensitive to changes in temperature. When an object, such as a person, moves within the sensor’s field of view, it will cause a change in the temperature of the surrounding area. This change is detected by the sensor, which triggers an alert or recording.

Ultrasonic motion detection works by using sound waves to detect movement. The camera emits a high frequency sound wave, and when the sound wave reflects off an object and returns to the camera, it is used to detect movement.

Image comparison motion detection works by comparing two images taken by the camera, one before and one after movement is detected. The camera analyzes the two images and looks for differences between them. If it finds a significant difference, it will trigger an alert or recording.

3. ANPR - Automatic Number Plate Recognition

ANPR stands for automatic number plate recognition. It is a technology that is used to automatically read and recognize the license plates of vehicles. ANPR systems are often used for security and law enforcement purposes, as they can quickly and accurately identify vehicles and their registered owners.

ANPR systems use specialized cameras that are mounted on poles or other structures, such as traffic lights or overpasses. These cameras are equipped with image recognition software that is specifically designed to read and recognize license plates. When a vehicle passes by the camera, the software captures an image of the license plate and uses optical character recognition (OCR) technology to convert the image into text. The text is then compared to a database of registered vehicles, and if a match is found, the system can retrieve information about the vehicle and its registered owner.

4. PTZ - Pan-Tilt-Zoom

PTZ cameras are often used in security and surveillance applications, as they allow the operator to remotely control the camera’s movements and get a closer look at a specific area of interest.

PTZ cameras are equipped with motors that allow them to move horizontally (pan), vertically (tilt), and zoom in and out. The operator can use a joystick or a computer to control the camera’s movements, allowing them to easily follow a moving object or get a closer look at a specific area. PTZ cameras can also be programmed to follow a preset tour or to automatically follow movement within their field of view.

5. Facial Recognition

Facial recognition technology uses artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze images and videos to identify individuals based on their facial features. When used in CCTV (closed-circuit television) systems, facial recognition software can be used to automatically identify people as they appear in camera footage.

Here is a general overview of how facial recognition works in CCTV systems:

  • A CCTV camera captures images or video of people in its field of view.
  • The facial recognition software analyzes the images or video to identify and locate the faces of individuals.
  • The software measures and maps the unique characteristics of each face, such as the distance between the eyes, the shape of the nose, and the length of the jawline.
  • The software compares the measured facial characteristics to a database of known faces to find a match.
  • If a match is found, the software will identify the person and send an alert to the appropriate authorities.

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